Periodontitis is an acute infection of the gums that damages the soft tissue and bone supporting the tooth. If the infection is left untreated, the alveolar bone surrounding the teeth is slowly and gradually lost. If Periodontitis is treated promptly and good oral hygiene is maintained, the damage could be minimized.

The bacteria present in the mouth stick to the surface of a tooth and in areas surrounding the tooth. Bacterial plaque is one the most common periodontal disease, and if the plaque is not removed on time, it could harden to form tartar or calculus. If the Periodontitis is not treated, it could lead to the loss of a tooth. Most cases of Periodontitis could be prevented by ensuring good oral hygiene and regular check-ups and cleanings with a dentist.
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What are the signs of Periodontitis?

The signs of periodontal diseases are not visible in the early stages unless it is detected by a dentist. The initial symptoms are as following:

  • The gums start bleeding when you brush or floss your teeth.
  • There are changes in the positioning of teeth, or a tooth gets loose.
  • If the mouth starts emitting a foul smell.
  • The gums start to recede.
  • If a person has bad breath.
  • The gums become swollen, red, and tender.
  • You experience pain while chewing and biting.
  • The teeth develop a build-up of plaque or tartar.
  • There is an inflammatory response throughout your body.

How can Periodontitis be treated? 

  1. The main aim of periodontitis treatment is to remove the bacterial and plaque deposits from the teeth and gums. The dentist will give you directions on how to prevent the accumulation of bacteria in your mouth. It primarily involves properly brushing and flossing the teeth and gums. A good oral hygiene product like a mouth wash may be prescribed. Make it a habit to brush your teeth twice a day with a fluoride paste. The teeth should be flossed at least once a day. It is cautioned to refrain from smoking and chewing tobacco. Professional cleaning with a dentist should be scheduled at least twice a year.
  2. Any periodontal pockets that have formed will require an intensive cleaning from a dentist. During a professional cleaning, your dentist will remove the accumulation of plaque and tartar from the roots of the teeth, polish them and apply fluoride on them. A scaling method will help scrape the tartar and remove any coarse spots on the root of a tooth that has a growth of bacteria.
  3. The dentist will prescribe a course of antibiotics in case the gum infections do not respond to oral cleanings. The antibiotics could be oral tablets, a gel, or mouth wash.
  4. The above options should be followed up by regular check-ups with the doctor. The progress of your recovery should be monitored about once every three to six months. Other treatments, including surgery, may be advised if the Periodontitis still persists.
  5. If the inflammation continues in areas that are not accessible to brushing and flossing, the dentist may advise on a surgical procedure called flap surgery to clean the deposits under your gums. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia, where the gums are lifted, and the roots of the teeth are cleaned thoroughly. The gums are stitched back into position. In case there is a loss of bone, a bone grafting procedure may be conducted to regenerate the lost bone.